Human detecting aqua robot using PIR sensor
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Human detecting aqua robot using PIR sensor

Project period

06/07/2017 - 07/06/2017




Human detecting aqua robot using PIR sensor
Human detecting aqua robot using PIR sensor

Human Detection Aqua Robot is an Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) that can detect the presence of the human in disaster regions. It will detect the humans using a PIR sensor and sends the signal from the transmitter side to the receiver side and notifies it to the user by the alert message in LCD. The Unmanned Surface Vehicle will float over the water occurs. Thus the robot contains parts of Arduino Nano (ATMEGA 328p), dc motors, PIR sensor, infrared sensor, LCD, Radiofrequency surface and changes its direction on its own when the obstacle transmitter and receiver. The main advantage is that time is saved, small in size, easy to implement inside the building, intercommunication between robots and irrespective of geographical areas robot can enter easily.

In these days the advent of new technology and growing computer capacity robots are visible in daily life. As technology improvement make them capable of performing a variety of tasks. Many kinds of robots are being used for several purposes such as cleaning the rooms and security purposes. More sophisticated robots must move towards autonomy: the ability to perform a task without human operation. There are mainly four types of rescue robots according to that can categorize as Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV), Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV), and Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV). The UGV robots work on the ground and can help rescuers to find and interact with the trapped and hurt victims in areas where a human cannot enter. The vehicle that operates while in contact with the ground and without an onboard human presence. The UAVs can easily transport medical treatments to victims and can give the responders a bird view of the situation. It is commonly known as the drone, is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard. The UUVs can search through water and find victims, dangerous subject or substance. Cannot use GPS signals yet. They are remarkable machines that revolutionized the process of gathering ocean data. The USVs works on the water surface and help rescuers to locate and bring the right equipment to the victims. It has also been called Unmanned Surface Vessels (USV). As the name implies they remove the operators from the platform and allow new modes of operations.

Arduino Nano is a small, complete and breadboard-friendly board based on the ATMEGA 328. Arduino Nano can be power via the Mini-B USB connection. It has many facilities for communicating with a computer, another Arduino or other microcontroller. The Arduino Nano can be programmed with the Arduino software. The Arduino software uses the capability to allow upload code by simply pressing the upload button in the Arduino environment. It provides 8bit PWM (Pulse Width Modulation). There is a built-in LED (Light Emitting Diode) connected to digital pin 13. The passive infrared sensor module is used for motion detection. It can work from 5v to 9v DC and gives digital output. It consists of a pyroelectric sensor that detects motion by measuring changes in the infrared levels emitted by the objects. Obstacle detector is used for detecting the obstacle. The RF transmitter and Receiver is used for transmission of the alert message. The main purpose for which the robot was designed is to detect the human’s presence inside the room during floods. Using PIR sensor the presence of the humans is detected and the alert message is sent to the rescue teams.

Why: Problem statement

The Aqua Robot has two sides, the receiver side, and the transmitter side. The transmitter side consists of ATMEGA 328 microcontroller (Arduino Nano); the inputs to the microcontroller are the PIR sensor and an Obstacle sensor. The outputs are RF transmitter and L293D motor drive module, to which a DC motor is connected. A DC motor is used to move the robot in left, right and forward and backward directions. L293D motor drive controls the DC motor to move in the direction. The direction of the movement is decided from the signals given by the obstacle sensors. Obstacle sensor uses an infrared signal to find if there are any obstacles present in front of it, its range is up to 5 cm. The obstacle sensors are placed in front, right and in left directions. If any sensors sense any obstacle it changes to the direction where there is no obstacle. This makes the aqua robot move automatically without external source controlling. A human can be detected using a PIR sensor. A PIR sensor is a sensor that produces passive infrared signals, these signals can detect heat. Human being produces heat which is detected using this sensor. Human being produces 9 to 10 microns of heat. A PIR sensor’s angle of detection is restricted to 180 degree that is except the area below the robot it can sense in all the other directions. The distance up to which PIR sensor can detect is restricted within 12 ft. As the sensor’s range is less, the sensor is mounted to a robot that can move automatically. If the sensor detects the human, it sends the signal to the RF transmitter to produce Radio Frequency signals. Radio Frequency signals can travel up to 200 ft. 

How: Solution description

In our result, we designed an aqua robot with minimized size. The Aqua robot was tested on the surface on the water. The testing phase had two parts, the first one is testing for detecting a human and the second test is detecting any obstacle. To test the Aqua robot for detection of human, it has to succeed the test conditions. The Aqua robot was tested for its range by placing 5ft away from the human and the robot detected the presence of the human. Hence the second test was checking the boundary conditions by placing the robot at 11ft and 12ft away from the human. It detected the presence of the human being in both ranges. The final test was to place the robot 13ft away from the human, where detecting is not possible and the aqua robot didn’t detect it. Hence the phase of checking range was successful.

How is it different from competition

It was designed to test the obstacle sensor. The Aqua robot was made to float over the water surface. If it sensed any obstacle in front of it, the robot moves backward direction about 1ft and chooses to moves in the left or right direction. If any obstacle is sensed in the right side then the robot changes its direction to the left side and vice versa. The Aqua robot worked perfectly without crashing.

Who are your customers

Many intelligent monitoring strategies were developed to detect life in the disaster environment. Life detection in the disaster environment attempted. The qua robot was designed with a passive infrared sensor, obstacle sensor, which is used to detect the human in a disaster environment and also for detecting the objects. The control system was designed using single-chip microcontroller ATMEGA 328 channel for controlling the motors so that it can make an aqua robot to float. Arduino programming was implemented for the movement of the aqua robot. To communicate with the aqua robot 433MHz Radio Frequency transmitter and receiver module is used.

Project Phases and Schedule

  1. Taking Survey
  2. Planning
  3. Designing
  4. Purchasing necessary components
  5. Interfacing the components with microcontroller
  6. Executing the prototype

Resources Required


  • Arduino Power Supply
  • PIR Sensor
  • IR Sensor
  • Motor Driver circuit
  • Power Supply


  • Arduino IDLE
  • Embedded C



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