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During cardiac arrest, the heart stops beating immediately without prompt intervention, it can result in a person’s death. The main symptom includes loss of unconsciousness and unresponsiveness. This type of medical emergency requires immediate CPR. Hospital care includes drugs, implantable devices, or other procedures. If treatment is not given immediately, sudden cardiac arrest may lead to death. With fast appropriate medical care like CPR will be provided, then the survival of the patient is possible. Doing CPR may increase the chance of survival until the critical care unit arrives. Cardiac arrest is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and it also leads to coma due to acute embolism. But, this embolism is managed by cardiopulmonary resuscitation(CPR) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation with excellent neurological recovery. The use of CPR in such cases is believed to reduce the mortality rate and increase the survival rate with good neurological outcomes. It saves nearly 4,00,000 to 5,00,000 people every year and we believe this will be increased in the upcoming year. The automatic CPR machine already exists. But, the cost of that machine is high. So we intended to design the low-cost CPR machine. This is achieved by replacing the component like Arduino, microcontroller and solenoid lock. The replaced components also do the same work as in the high-cost CPR machine.
Why: Problem statement
The manual CPR is not that efficient when compared to automatic CPR because the experts who are giving CPR to the patient aren't able to give the continuous CPR to the patients but the automatic CPR machine is able to give the continuous CPR to the patients. CPR also keeps the oxygenated blood flowing to the brain and other vital organs of the body until more medical treatment can restore a normal heart beat. When the heart stops, the lack of oxygenated blood can cause brain damage in a few minutes. CPR is an emergency procedure that combines chest compressions often with artificial ventilation in an effort to manually preserve intact brain function until further measures to restore spontaneous blood circulation and breathing to cardiac arrested persons. Pressing on the chest can cause a sore chest, or a collapsed lung. Most patients who survive will need to be on a breathing machine to help their breathing for a while.
How: Solution description
The objective of the project is to reduce the cost of the CPR machine. It is achieved by the replacement of the component in the existing CPR machine. The replaced component also does the same work as the component in the existing CPR. But, it is cost-effective. The existing CPR machine costs nearly 1,00,000 and our project reduces the price to 50,000. So, the ultimate aim of our project is achieved.
In the proposed system battery or DC power supply is used as a power supply as same in the existing system. The Arduino board is used to control the compression rate, which acts as a timer circuit in the existing system. It is already mentioned by The world health organization that “ In the future, microcontrollers will replace the timer circuit”. The time delay program is fed into the Arduino board to perform the timer function. The combined structure of projection in the existing technique was replaced here is a piston. a piston is used to give the compression to the patient. There is no need for a motor here to control the piston movement. The components that have been used to minimize the cost of the CPR machine are an Arduino microcontroller, relay module, power supply, piston, vacuum rubber pad. In our project, the Arduino board replaces the function of the timer and the piston replaces the function of rod & disc shape projection in the existing system.
The important components in our project are,
How is it different from competition
In the existing system, direct current is used as a power supply. The electronic unit gives supply to the motor and the timer circuit. The mechanical elements like gear assembly control the speed of the DC motor. The DC motor is connected with the rod shape projection and disc shape projection. These two projections combine to give compression to the patient.
In the proposed system battery or DC power supply is used as a power supply as same in the existing system. In the existing system, the Arduino board is used to control the rate of compression, which acts as a timer circuit. The world health organization has already mentioned the word “ In the future, microcontrollers replace the timer circuit”. The time delay program is fed into the Arduino board to perform the timer function. The combined structure of projection in the existing technique was replaced here as a piston. A piston is used to give compression to the patient. There is no need for a motor here to control the piston movement. The relay module is used for delay purposes.
Who are your customers
Patients who face sudden cardiac arrest, hospitals, and health centers.People mostly roaming places like beach, picnic spot, resort, circus, etc., Our project should be placed in that kind of place. Because huge crowds, whatever may be happening in the place. If anyone from the crowd has a sudden heart attack or others related heart issues. In An emergency situation we can’t wait for an ambulance. In our project we will replace the hospital CPR service. Everyone can handle the prototype to save the patient's life.
Project Phases and Schedule
Design: The design of the project is fully focused on commercial purpose, to reduce the emergency situation.
Construction: The construction of the project is mainly based on a piston and oxygen pump, and it is connected to the microprocessor.
Programming: We use Arduino UNO. So the programming tool is Arduino. In our code initially the piston automatically compresses 20 times, after completion the compression, the oxygen pump will be pumped in 2 minute. The time difference should be denoted in our arduino code.
Component interface : Connecting all the components by using a jumper wire. Connect the piston lock negative to the 12v battery and positive is connected to the relay at Normally opened. The relay normally closed connected to the battery positive. The relay vcc and ground are connected to the microcontroller, then IN pin is connected to the microcontroller pin(8). The pump is positively and negatively connected to the microcontroller by using a breadboard.
Testing: Finally, we tested and verified the connection and code of the program.
Arduino microcontroller:Arduino microcontrollers contain 14 digital pins and 6 Analog pins. In this paper, the 14 digital pins are used to give input or output for our project using pinMode(), digitalWrite() and digitalRead() functions. DC current for 3.3V out is 50mA and the DC current for 3.3V in is 1A. It is supplied with an external adapter. The memory used in Arduino is EPROM, so we are able to upload a larger number of programs.
Piston: The piston is the disc-shaped metal connected with the rod-shaped projection. This structure is used to give compression to the patient. The speed of the piston is controlled by the relay module.
Relay module: The relay module is operated using an electrical switch that can be turned on or off, letting the current go through or not, and this can be controlled using low voltages, like the 5v given by the Arduino pins. The relay module used here is a single-phase or single-channel relay module.
Oxygen pump:The oxygen pump is given oxygen supply to the patient. The flow of oxygen depends upon the patient. In automatic devices, we can use only an oxygen pump.
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